adapted to subtropical climate of lower warm valleys of the Himalayas with sufficient rainfall.
up to an altitude of 2400 m, and between 700 m and 1000 m
10–12 months of growth in the nursery, transplanting at May–June if irrigation facilities are available and July–August (monsoon season)
50 cm × 50 cm
About 10– 12 tonnes per hectare of FYM (farmyard manure) should be mixed with the soil as a basal dose before transplantation
Weeding should be carried out during the initial establishment phase, 30–45 days after transplanting, and again at 60–80 days after transplanting. Later, weeding may be carried out only as and when required
only life-support irrigation is required during the summer months.
takes five to seven years to mature. Fruits are collected in May–June. Stem pieces, if needed, may be cut during January–February before the flowers appear
Post Harvest Activities
The herbage and fruits should be dried in shade. The fruits may be cut into pieces for drying and extracting seeds. Well-dried seeds are stored in damp-proof containers.
The plant has many medicinal properties. the bark, seed, fruit and leaves are all utilized.
generally free from insect or nematode attack
generally free from any disease
Removal and destruction of affected plants